YOUNG EXPERTS ON RUSSIA’S SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE FOR SOUTHEAST ASIA
Head of the Center of the South Pacific Studies IOS RAS;
Research fellow at the Center for Southeast Asia, Australia and Oceania IOS RAS
Professor, HSE University
Moscow, Russia, 2021
The Russian Federation is strengthening its influence on the global economy, politics and security. Russia was the first country to develop its own vaccine. Russia created the infrastructure necessary for responding to the COVID-19 pandemic in a short time. Amidst lockdowns imposed in virtually all the countries across the world, Russia held prestigious international events, ranging from Euro-2020 games in Saint Petersburg to SPEF and EEF in the “in-person” format, which convinced Russia’s partners in its readiness for long-term and sustainable cooperation. Russian not only successfully responds to the economic war, but also maintains the growth rates of its economy higher than the world average figures. An intensive anti-Russian propaganda campaign in some countries that often breaches the diplomatic etiquette and established social norms, increases interest in reliable information about Russia, especially along with Russia’s rising influence on the intellectual and normative paradigm of international cooperation. Naturally, all the factors combined stimulate interest in multi-dimensional practically-oriented cooperation with Russia, as well as in Russia itself.
Since November 1, 2021, the international project “The Beacon of Russia’s Achievements”, correlated with the on-going Year of Science and Technology in the Russian Federation, has been under implementation. The project had been prepared for four months. It was carried out as an on-line expedition across 15 major well-known academic achievements made by Russians. The project focuses on not only the most remarkable Russian discoveries of recent years, but also on promising direction of cooperation with various countries in the academic, socio-cultural, educational, business and other fields.
The primary aim of the project was to promote the Russian education, science and culture by means of digital educational expeditions. It was carried out in the on-line format on a specially prepared multi-page website where special video presentations on every of the fifteen Russia’s recent achievements were made. In addition to those materials, the website presents information on the Russian education, training programs on Russian language, Russia’s traditions and culture. Moving from one achievement to another, the website visitors learned more about Russia and promising directions of cooperation with our country.
To attract attention to the project and to foster inter-cultural dialogue, on-line conferences, including those in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and Cambodia, were convened. Apart from presenting the project itself, the speakers gave unbiased information on Russia and on the history of its cooperation with each of those countries.
The overall number of participants registered for all the convened conferences accounted for 1726 persons, including 1379 participants from 45 countries (besides the Russian participants). This result reveals keen and genuine interest in cooperation with the Russian Federation, as well as deliberate intention to obtain unbiased information on Russia. This assessment is not limited to the countries in which the on-line conferences took place.
In the contemporary realities, social media that exert profound influence on public sentiments cannot be ignored. To broaden the project audience and receive constructive feedback with the participants, the project was provided with informational support in social media in Russian and in English. It resulted in the on-line audience outreach of 185 348 persons, while the website bra.mikluho-maclay.ru was visited 2464 times in the first month and a half once the project started.
The fact that students of Russian universities carried out a research in the framework of the project makes the project itself unique, as it gives an extra impetus to the academic diplomacy and shapes its new vector. Training highly-qualified specialists able to analytically and instrumentally support Russia’ policy in Southeast Asia has been an important task for a long time. At present, its relevance has increased significantly, as Russia’s partners expect more than new declarations of goodwill. An impressive time-efficient result is necessary.
In light of this, training top specialists in the International Regional Studies majoring in Southeast Asia must be comprehensive and multi-dimensional, as well as include three obligatory components. The first is its practical applicability, specifically, an emphasis on exploring regional processes in all their forms and aspects rather than on the extent to which those processes match various political theories. The more so since many of those theories were developed by Western intellectuals several decades ago, and at present, demonstrate their instrumental irrelevance. The second, synergized with the first, relates to active academic mentorship: experienced specialists share their experience with young researchers not only in the university audience-room, but also in the course of the project activity. The latter includes an active participation of students in preparing analytical materials, roadmaps for resolving complex international problems etc. The academic and the practical track are synergized and complement each other. Amidst the present increase in international competition, the third accounts for a focus on political, economic, informational and cultural marketing, which means promoting Russian products, services and technologies in foreign markets, as well as Russia’s interests in industrial niches and the contemporary international division of labor.
Arguably, the project “The Beacon of Russia’s Achievements” not only focuses on the three components presented above, but also develops them. This factor helps young researchers to obtain unique analytical and practical experience. The synergy of all the factors related to the project suggests that the students would not have obtained commensurate skills by participating in other activities of all sorts.
The report prepared by HSE University and RANEPA students is among the outcomes of the project “The Beacon of Russia’s Achievements”. Although the report emphasizes the factors behind the interest of Southeast Asia’s decision makers, no matter top government officials shaping cooperation between their countries and the Russian Federation, or students exploring possibilities to study abroad, the assessments and conclusions presented in the report are relevant to other Russia’s partners. This relates to both an increase in their competitiveness and motivation to develop cooperation with Russia. This factor opens up the possibility to make the project sustainable with a focus on other countries and regions.
The report supplements and broadens the information materials posted on the website “The Beacon of Russia’s Achievements”. While the afore-mentioned web-resource reveals the essence of Russia’s assets from a substantial perspective, the report emphasizes the reasons behind demand on them in Southeast Asia, by informing the target audience in those countries on possibilities for cooperation with Russia along the tracks relevant to the reviewed achievements.
In the English version of the report, the references are the same as they are in the Russian text. This is explicable since Russian achievements are described in detail mostly in Russian sources. Although it may cause some inconvenience, as not all readers may have a good command of Russian, it proves that the presented analytical reviews of Russian achievements are substantiated by conclusive evidence.
Editing the report, its academic mentors did not aim to amend the texts prepared by the young researchers to an extent that the original versions would have been completely lost. The editorial revision was made where it was expedient or necessary. The mentors had a different aim, namely, to present the vision of young experts on the essence of Russia’s achievements and the reasons why they, as well as Russia itself, may be of interest to ambitious and career-oriented young people from Southeast Asia. Nevertheless, the academic mentors are responsible for the text that follows, including its possible shortcomings.
Developing relations with its Southeast Asian partners, the Russian Federation has been encountering a serious problem for many years: the tempo, scale and quality of economic cooperation has been behind the political dialogue. The reasons are thoroughly explored, and the most important accounts for insufficiency of the practically-oriented component in cooperation between Russia and those states. A gap between prospective planning outlined in numerous joint statements and declarations, and their practical substantiation is an inevitable outcome. In light of this, the necessity to specify the term Strategic Partnership with regard to relations between the Russian Federation and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) increases in urgency.
Nevertheless, the clarification of this term should stem from its substance rather than from its official interpretations by policy-makers or government agencies that are involved in developing Russia-ASEAN dialogue. The Strategic Partnership means a special state of relations, in the framework of which its participants resolve strategic tasks of their development, and which does not necessarily presuppose other sorts of agreements, for instance on military cooperation or on a free trade regime. The Strategic Partnership implies a dialogue free from on-going political developments and situational priorities. The Strategic Partnership emphasizes the fundamental components of cooperation, which will define not only the international competitiveness of partners, but also, as the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated, their ability to effectively resolve internal tasks and undertake economic reforms.
The educational project carried out by the Miklouho-Maclay Foundation for the Preservation of Ethnocultural Heritage, the Center for South Pacific, the Center of Southeast Asia, Australia and Oceania, the Institute of Oriental Studies, the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the All-Russian Association of the South Pacific Researchers, supported by the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation and Rossotrudnichestvo, was implemented and widely covered in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Cambodia. HSE University and RANEPA students analyzed the importance of Russian achievements to its partners, which responds to the current and prospective tasks of Russia’s policy in Southeast Asia, as well to the priorities of ASEAN member states and the association as an international actor. The fact that the researchers, practitioners and students of Russian universities participated in the project, while its aim was to promote Russia’s technologically-advanced products in the markets of ASEAN member states, strengthens the strategic dimension in relations between the Russian Federation and the association.
This emphasis is exemplified by both the substantial and the structural components of the report. From a substantial perspective, the material focuses on fifteen Russian achievements in various fields, which were chosen on the basis of their actuality and worldwide recognition. Without mentioning all those achievements and their order in the report, it deserves emphasizing that the Russian assets and the factors of interest in them in Southeast Asia were analyzed by young experts who will soon develop Russia-ASEAN Strategic Partnership in Russia’s government agencies and companies, rather than by eminent scientists.
From the structural point of view, the report consists of five components. First, it describes the achievement itself, including its history. Second, it specifies the spheres of its practical applicability. Third, it outlines the factors that suggest that Russia’s partners in Southeast Asia, motivated by their prospective plans, may find this achievement interesting. Fourth, a review of Russian universities and educational programs that train specialists in related spheres is undertaken. Fifth and finally, specific details of those universities and programs that may increase their attractiveness for potential bachelor, master and post-graduate students, as well as for specialists who aim to enroll in re-training courses, are provided.
As most of the achievements presented in the report are used in technologically-advanced economic sectors, the respective cooperation between Russia and the ASEAN member states will be multi-faceted with a long-term multiplier effect. It will include not only a commercialization of Russia’s assets in those countries, transfers of Russian technologies and equipment there, Russia’s contribution to constructing industrial and technological infrastructure there and training local specialists in Russian universities and research institutes. Most importantly, it includes a variety of new possibilities, forms and mechanism of cooperation in their synergy. This factor should be taken into account and systematically increased in Russia’s project proposals.
Although this indispensable part of effort still awaits systematic implementation by Russia and its partners, there are compelling reasons for optimism. The fact that Russia does not link a dialogue in the R@D field with political demands is among the most important. It creates a positive context for all the parties involved in cooperation and allows raising it to a qualitatively new level, as compared to what has existed to date.
RUSSIA’S ACHIEVEMENTS AND THEIR ASSESSMENT
For Russia’s policy in the Asia-Pacific region, including its relations with the ASEAN member states, one of the key reasons for success accounts for an effective set of instruments. Russia’s scientific achievements can perform this role. The analysis that follows reviews fifteen Russian achievements, scrutinizes the factors of potential interest from Russia’s Asia-Pacific partners, specifies the possibilities of Russia’s universities and research centers to train specialists in related fields.
Achievement 1. A New Approach to Antibiotics
Antibiotic resistance is a global problem associated with the interchange of bacteria and genes between humans, animals and the environment. Although multiple barriers restrict the flow of both bacteria and genes, pathogens periodically acquire new resistance factors from other species, thereby reducing a person’s ability to prevent and treat bacterial infections. In simple words, too frequent use of antibiotics leads to bacterial resistance to them. In order to overcome this, you can look for new antibiotics. However, Russian scientists propose a new way – to use suppressants or enzyme inhibitors together with antibiotics, which protect bacteria from external factors, including antibiotics.
Back in 2011, a conference dedicated to the problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotics was held in New York. Nobel laureate and discoverer of the DNA structure James Watson and other biologists came to the conclusion that the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria poses a universal threat to humans and animals, which, although difficult to prevent, can be controlled, and this task must be solved in the most effective ways.
Due to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria and viruses, Russian scientists from the Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology have developed a mechanism to combat bacteria and viruses. The special significance of the discovery of Russian scientists lies in the fact that inhibitors, found by scientists have the property of synthesizing hydrogen sulfide, the so-called tool for protecting bacteria.
The applicability lies in the use of enzymes along with antibiotics in viral and bacterial diseases. Bacterial diseases include cholera, tetanus, streptococcal and staphylococcal infections, etc. Some of these diseases threaten the patient with a fatal outcome. The use of enzymes in parallel with antibiotics may alleviate the consequences of transferring the disease. Russian scientists have made a real revolution in medical science.
The countries of Southeast Asia are characterized by outbreaks of diseases of a bacterial nature. Often residents of these countries are victims of diseases such as dysentery, cholera, Dengue fever. Within the framework of WHO studies, the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics has been confirmed in the countries of Southeast Asia. Their shortage is also characteristic. The rather humid climate undoubtedly contributes to the reproduction of many dangerous bacterial species in these countries, so the use of enzymes, along with antibiotics, is necessary for the states of Southeast Asia to ensure the safety of both their own citizens and tourists.
Bacteriology is the science of bacteria, which is a branch of microbiology. Microbiology is studied in many Russian universities and research institutes. The National Research Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology named after N. F. Gamalei of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation is recruiting for postgraduate studies. The Departments of Microbiology, Virology and Immunology function at Lomonosov Moscow State University (Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology), I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Department of Microbiology, Virology and Immunology). From other universities, one can distinguish the Russian National Research Medical University named after N. I. Pirogov (Department of Microbiology and Virology, for Bachelor’s and Master’s degree “Biology”), Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Department of Microbiology and Virology), St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University (Department of Microbiology, Virology and Immunology, Bachelor’s degree programs “Nursing”, specialty “Pediatrics”, “Medicine”, “Dentistry”, “Medical Biophysics”, “Preventive Medicine” and Master’s degree “Public Health”).
In addition to microbiology, Russian universities study such disciplines as pediatrics, general biology, virology, phytovirusology, retrovirusology, etc., and in some of the universities (for example, the I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University), specialists are trained in English and French.
Russian universities of the considered profile implement a large number of activities to develop the professional qualities of their students. For example, during the NAUKA`s festival, organized by the Faculty of Biology of Moscow State University, demonstrations and subsequent discussions of films on the specialty, meetings with Nobel Prize laureates and robot competitions take place.
Achievement 2. The Invention of Biochips for Cancer Diagnostics
The biochips were produced in the Russian Federation in 2016 by Russian experts in epidemiology and microbiology, including National Medical Research Center of Oncology. N.N. Blokhin staff members. In the same year, the invention was granted an international patent. The biochip is tested on a permanent basis. Its test production was launched in Nizhny Novgorod. Not only the biomaterial itself, but also the technical equipment necessary for detecting cancerous growths were produced in Nizhny Novgorod enterprises and pharmaceutical laboratories.
Although the biochip producers are still awaiting approval from Federal Service for Surveillance in Healthcare (Roszdravnadzor), after which the biochip mass production can start, Russian cytologists are already being trained on using it.
The biochip is a test system capable of detecting cancer at an early stage and has no analogues in the world. While the research carried out in other countries focuses on genetic studies, the Russian biochip is cell-based and carries out immuno-cytochemical tests on the body. The biochip significantly decreases the preparation of biomaterial, can potentially detect all types of cancer, requires only a microscope and a dispenser, and can be handled remotely.
The COVID-19 pandemic has intensified the development of biotechnology and medical technology, which has significantly expanded opportunities for international scientific and practical cooperation. As the cancer treatment remains a complex and resource-intensive process, the importance of timely and accurate diagnosis of the disease is very high. Potentially, the molecular diagnostics can be the most affordable method to detect cancer. Accurate results can be obtained even in remote regions without sophisticated equipment at major medical centres.
In the near future, Russian scientists plan to step up research in this area, making the biochip not only effective but also relatively inexpensive. This is in line with the priorities and prospective plans of Russia’s partners in Southeast Asia, as they are developing their own medical technologies, including those relevant to the diagnosis of oncological diseases.
Many Russian institutions of higher education are studying issues related to the Russian biochip for cancer diagnosis. These include Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University (PNRMU), The N.N. Petrov National Medicine Research Center of oncology, P. Hertsen Moscow Oncology Research Institute, and A. Tsyb Medical Radiological Research Centre. Biochips were developed by the N.N. Blokhin National Medical Research Centre for Oncology. N.N. Blokhin National Cancer Research Centre, the Volga Region Medical Research University and the N.N. Blokhina Scientific Research Institute of Oncology.
At these institutions, it is possible to receive a specialized education and training in related areas. In addition to the disciplines related to oncology, these institutions teach pathological anatomy, radiology, radiotherapy, paediatrics, ultrasonography and others. The Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University runs numerous programmes for international students, including those in English.
Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University is a world-renowned university with high positions in global university rankings. In 2019, Times Higher University Rankings granted the University a prestigious 80th place in the world in the Health and Human Wellbeing subject category. In addition to fundamental training, the University provides its students with many forms of extracurricular activities. Among the student organizations, there is a school of tutors, a student research discussion group, the largest donor movement in Russia, 17 clubs and studios, 18 sports sections and 20 student country communities (including Malaysian, Indian and Tunisian communities).
Achievement 3. Life Detection on Mars
Possible traces of life on Mars have started sparkling interest in the scientific community as early as the middle of the 17th century, when the polar caps were discovered. British scientist William Herschel was able to prove the existence of seasonal increase and decrease in the polar caps.
In the middle of the 19th century, the following similarity between Mars and Earth was discovered: the duration of the Martian day and the inclination of the planet’s axis are similar to that of the Earth, which suggests that the seasons on Mars are similar to those on Earth, but they last twice as long due to the longer duration of the Martian year.
As for the 20th century, the history of the discovery of life on Mars dates back to 1976. The Viking satellite was sent to obtain the first soil samples. The experiment was unsuccessful. Though a relatively high reactivity was found in the soil, there was no evidence of any signs of life.
In 1984, a meteorite of Martian origin was discovered in Antarctica. Traces of bacteria have been found in the meteorite fossils, suggesting signs of life on Mars. This evidence soon disappeared.
The gas that forms as a result of the vital activity of bacteria is called methane. Traces of this gas – organic molecules 3.5 billion years old – were discovered on Mars by the Curiosity rover in August 2012.
In April 2012, scientists from the German Aerospace Center (DRL) confirmed the existence of life on Mars – an experiment aimed at testing the survival of terrestrial organisms under the conditions of Mars. Lichens and blue – green algae began to photosynthesize, which suggests the possibility of life on Mars.
2018 was marked by a significant discovery by scientists. An underground lake was found on Mars in a liquid state and about 20 km in size. This discovery speaks of the possible existence of signs of life on the “red” planet.
Although the Mars Express station that made the discovery is a project of the European Space Agency, nevertheless, it was Russia that provided the mission with the Soyuz-FG launch vehicle and the Fregat upper stage. The station was launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome in 2003. Thus, the reliability and duration of operation of this Mars satellite is largely ensured by the quality of Russian-made power units.
The result of this study is very important for assessing the possibility of detecting life in outer space and finding areas where the signs of this life can be found or developed. This helps in the development of methods and techniques for space missions and in the prevention of space pollution.
Right now, Southeast Asian countries are in the process of joining the “space race”. For instance, Myanmar is sending space satellites that can send images of hard-to-reach fields to farmers or help predict the weather and track typhoons and seismic activity.
The sphere of bilateral technical cooperation between Russia and ASEAN includes outer space, and both sides are interested in its continuation. Moreover, Russia has held joint seminars “Russian space systems”, where representatives of ASEAN countries were told about the use of the latest space technologies. Since the 90s, Russia and ASEAN have been actively cooperating in the aerospace sector, thanks to which spacecrafts are ordered for construction. One of Russia’s closest partners in this area is Malaysia. For example, in 2000, with the assistance of Russia, a Malaysian microsatellite for Earth remote sensing was launched into orbit.
It is possible to get relevant education in the profile in a number of Russian universities: St. Petersburg State University (SPSU) – Specialist Degree “Astronomy”, Faculty of Biology; Moscow State University (MSU) – Faculty of Space Research, Faculty of Physics; Ural Federal University (UrFU) – Department of Astronomy, Geodesy and Environmental Monitoring; Kazan Federal University (KFU) – Specialist degree “Astronomy”; Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU) – The Faculty of Fundamental Science.
These opportunities are supported by significant competitive advantages of these universities. The Faculty of Space Research of Moscow State University cooperates with Roscosmos and participates in the creation and sending of satellites into orbit. In addition, Moscow State University has established contacts with many international universities, such as the Leuven Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Centre of the Catholic University of Leuven, the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, the Institute of Solid State Research at the Forschungszentrum Jülich (Jülich Research Centre) and many others.
The Specialist degree “Astronomy” at the St. Petersburg State University is taught in both Russian and English and offers good opportunities for international students. The university also collaborates with such international universities as the University of Boston, the Sapienza University of Rome, the University of Turku, the TU Dresden, the Pierre and Marie Curie University.
The activities of the Department of Astronomy, Geodesy and Environmental Monitoring of the Ural Federal University have been highly appreciated by the international astronomical community. In 2000, by the decision of the International Astronomical Union, the small planet No. 6165 was named Frolova in honor of the associate professor of the department Natalia Borisovna Frolova.
Achievement 4. The Launch of the Superconducting Accelerator
On November 20, 2020, the Prime Minister of the Russian Federation Mikhail Mishustin launched the superconducting accelerator of the NICA collider (Nucleotron – based Ion Collider Facility) in Dubna. However, the history of the accelerator began in 1956, when the international intergovernmental research organization Joint Institute for Nuclear Research was established. One of its main goals was the creation of an accelerator complex and experimental facilities for exploring essential features of baryonic matter. Three years later, the implementation of the NICA project started.
Since the accelerator complex launches ions in a wide range of energies from several kiloelectronvolts to 4,500 megaelectronvolts, the project has a huge potential for the advancement of many industries. For example, NICA allows carrying out an extensive research in the field of materials science, nano- and picotechnology, medicine, biology, electronics, space exploration, nuclear energy, cryogenic and superconducting technology. This opens up possibilities to conduct a pioneering research in practice-oriented areas, including: energy efficiency and energy conservation, nuclear technologies, medical technologies and strategic information technologies.
The interest of Southeast Asian countries in the development of these fields is obvious because of their special focus on ensuring domestic energy security. Despite large reserves of energy resources in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Vietnam, as well as the hydropower potential of Laos and Cambodia, the expansion of capabilities to make their needs meet has been and remains among the key development priorities of those states.
The governments of Southeast Asian states prioritize the development of renewable energy sources. Although in many countries across the world the interest in nuclear power decreased after the accident at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant in March 2011, the NICA project will improve the safety of nuclear reactors.
The launch of the collider opens up opportunities for fundamental research in the area of nuclear reactors, technologies for the transmutation of nuclear energy waste, as well as for testing the radiation resistance of electronic devices. This will significantly contribute to the achievement of the prospective plans of Southeast Asian states, in which the Russian Federation will play a decisive role.
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research is open to international students. It is reflected in the motto of the Institute: “Science brings nations together.” Young researchers can participate in professional activities in the structural branches of the Institute, as well as study at the basic departments of partner universities. The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research departments function at several Russian universities: Department of Fundamental and Applied Problems of Microworld Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University (Department of Elementary Particle Physics), St. Petersburg University (Department of Information and Nuclear Technologies), National Research Nuclear University MEPhi (Interdepartmental Laboratory of Experimental Nuclear Physics), KFU – Kazan University (Department of Nuclear Physics Materials Science). The closest cooperation is developed with the University Dubna, seven departments of which are basic for the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research.
Being interested in strengthening ties with foreign partners, the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research implements the INTEREST program “International Remote Student Training”, within which students from all over the world can study and participate in on-line scientific activities free of charge. The program helps students who study physics, engineering, and information technology to get acquainted with the achievements of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, choose the field of academic activity and develop professional contacts with the staff of the Institute.
Russian universities carry out many projects that arouse the interest of students from many countries across the world. The international group of National Research Nuclear University MEPhi invites students to join its international scientific group – Helmholtz GSI which is located in Germany. The project is aimed at conducting research in the field of heavy ion collisions, processing experimental data obtained at mega-science installations, and modeling physical processes. Dubna State University implements the educational project “International Engineering School”, which the University conducts jointly with Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. LFI – the Landau Phystech School of Physics and Research at MIPT provides graduates with positions in research teams, including career opportunities at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research.
Achievement 5. The Detection of Neutrinos from Black Holes
Neutrinos are ultra-light particles that permeate the Universe and everything in it, and move with near-light speed. Even the heaviest neutrino weighs millions of times less than an electron. They are constantly “born” on the Sun, inside the Earth, in the atmosphere, in nuclear reactors and inside emerging or dying galaxies and stars.
The topic of the relationship between neutrinos and gamma radiation has been an object of interest for world science for many years, and only in 2018 it became possible to detect a simultaneous gamma burst and the arrival of neutrinos from one quasar, which aroused the interest of scientists. However, beside this incident, no evidence was found, and scientists from Russia got down to business, who decided to look for a connection between neutrinos and radio emission from quasars.
Thanks to the American observatory in Antarctica IceCube, as well as radio telescopes around the world and the Russian radio telescope RATAN-600, Russian astrophysicists from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, The Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences managed to trace the connection between neutrinos and bursts of radio emission from a quasar, which appear simultaneously.
In the course of further investigation of the data for a period of 8 years (from 2008 to 2015), a connection was found between extragalactic neutrinos and manifestations of blazar activity, which are a subtype of black holes. From this, scientists concluded that black holes in the centers of galaxies were the birthplace of neutrinos, which subsequently appear on our planet.
Results of the study were published on May 12, 2020 in the Astrophysical Journal. Further work on the search for neutrinos continued in 2021, when Russian scientists installed a deep-sea telescope on Lake Baikal to catch “candidates” for atmospheric neutrinos.
It is extremely important to study such a substance as neutrino, because, first of all, with the help of it, one can get closer to unraveling the origin of our Universe. In addition, this particle is another step towards the discovery and study of the so-called “new physics” – this is a theoretical development that explains the shortcomings of the Standard Model in physics. For example, thanks to the “new physics” it will be possible to explain the origin of dark matter and energy. And the neutrino particle itself can reveal the predominance of matter over antimatter.
In addition, the discovery of neutrinos may give another impetus to the emergence of new technologies. It is also, of course, another huge area in science that remains to be studied and carried out large-scale research, which will help in the future to identify a new, unknown class of particles that can interact with each other in completely different ways. This substance may possibly be used in practice, which can also lead to new discoveries in science.
Although the actual commercialization of this discovery is at an early stage, the Southeast Asian countries with their focus on the development of innovations and the growth of technological exchanges with partners, are interested in further work on the study of neutrinos and its introduction into production practice. There are already technologies that are being developed to create modern experiments for studying the physics of neutrinos, and they are widely used in industry. In late 2020, Japanese scientists from the University of Tokyo and the University of Tsukuba developed a model that accurately shows the role of the neutrino particle in the evolution of the universe. In Italy, there is a solar neutrino catcher or detector called Borexino. Thanks to this, it became known about the existence of such neutrinos that complement the idea of mankind about the synthesis cycles of the Sun and other stars. It should also be noted that it was previously believed that the substance of a neutrino weighs absolutely nothing, but in 2019 scientists established that a neutrino still had a mass that was six million times lighter than an electron. This discovery goes beyond the Standard Model of physics.
The following Russian universities carry out research and provide training of specialists of the considered profile: Lomonosov Moscow State University (Institute for theoretical and mathematical physics, Department of Theoretical Physics); Saint-Petersburg State University (Astronomy); Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Modern cosmology and problems of the universe); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Nuclear physics and cosmophysics, Physics of elementary particles and cosmology); North-Caucasus Federal University (Physics of the Earth and Space); Kazan Federal University (Astrophysics and cosmology); Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Physics of cosmic and fiery phenomena).
These universities have a number of features attractive to potential students. At the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN) there is an educational and scientific institute of gravity and cosmology (UNIGK). In this structural unit, fundamental problems of the physics of space-time are actively studied, which will later become the basis for academic and fundamental research. Also, projects are being implemented that address the theoretical problems of gravity, cosmology and celestial mechanics. Moreover, UNIGK includes the center of gravity, cosmology, astrophysics and space systems.
One of the subdivisions of Lomonosov Moscow State University is the State Astronomical Institute named after P.K. Sternberg (GAISh). The staff of this institute carries out research of both fundamental and applied nature in the field of astronomy, physics, cosmology.
Lomonosov Moscow State University has many features that attract students from all over the world. In addition to its continued leadership in Russian university rankings, this university is notable for the unique history of its student organizations. For example, the Lomonosov Moscow State University Student Theater, founded in 1756, is not only the oldest in Moscow, but also became the basis for the Bolshoi and Maly theaters. The student life of the Lomonosov Moscow State University is closely connected with art. In addition to the theater, students can attend classes in the academic choir, chamber orchestra, piano and even organ classes.
St. Petersburg State University also offers its students a bright and eventful life outside of classrooms. This northern capital university hosts a unique song contest “Univision”, “Miss St. Petersburg State University” and even “Fashion Day”. Another distinctive feature of the St. Petersburg State University is the large number of student publications: “I Uni”, “Marquis de Smolny”, “Razvilka”, “Sol” and many others.
Achievement 6. The Detection of a New Human Species
The Denisovan or Denisova hominin is a branch of an extinct human species who lived at the same time as Neanderthals. It was discovered by scientists from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The relatives were dubbed Denisovans after the name of the cave in Altai where the remains were found.
In 2008, M.V. Shunkov and other researchers of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences explored the cave and found a finger bone of a young female hominin. After it proved to belong to a new ancient hominin, genetically different from both modern humans and Neanderthals, a study was published in the journal Nature in 2010. The discovery was sensational and research has since continued.
In 2019, scientists found a Denisovan skull. Through research on a lower jaw discovered in 1980 by a Buddhist monk in the Baishia karst cave on the Tibetan plateau in China, it was revealed that human species of this branch lived in Tibet. Denisovans had contacts with modern humans, mainly Melanesians and aborigines of Australia. There are reasons to believe that Denisova hominins existed in New Guinea, Australia and the Philippines.
The scientific relevance of the discovery is considerable, since it expands the boundaries of understanding the evolution of modern humans, and therefore, their ability to adapt to different environmental conditions. One example is a mutation of the EPAS1 gene in modern Tibetan peoples, which enables them to live in highland areas.
Another crucial aspect of the discovery is a possibility of identifying the remains of ancient people represented in museums, which was problematic before. Finally, the discovery will help the Russian and world archaeological community to reconstruct in detail not only the appearance, but also the lifestyle of prehistoric humans.
Although at the present stage, the discovery is more of scientific rather than of practical significance, it should not be diminished. The discovery portrays Russia as a great scientific power, as well as allows Russia to strengthen academic ties with many countries across the world, extending cooperation to many related areas. This is part of the consolidating agenda of cooperation that the contemporary world manifestly lacks. Consequently, the role of academic diplomacy is very high.
Studies of this branch of human species are conducted at the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Despite its focus on archaeology, the Institute emphasizes a multidisciplinary dimension of its activity. Among the institutions of higher education specializing in the study of Denisov cave, the most authoritative is Altai State University, whose high competitiveness is recognized by foreign colleagues.
The Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences carries out fieldwork and laboratory research and organizes scientific expeditions. In 2020, Altai State University was included in the world’s top 100 universities according to Times Higher Education University Ranking. Apart from the academic field, the University offers its students various forms of extracurricular activity. Among them, of note are miscellaneous creative groups: from music and choreography teams to a fashion studio. As a result, every student can fully realize his or her not only academic but also creative potential.
Achievement 7. The Exploration of Lake Vostok in Antarctica
Seismic soundings were made by Soviet scientists in Antarctica (Soviet Antarctic Expeditions) in 1963-1964. These and other research and studies led to the discovery of Lake Vostok. The lake was named after Vostok Station located in the area, founded by Soviet polar explorers in 1957.
Although this activity was undertaken intermittently, in 2012, direct penetration into the lake was achieved using the technology developed at Leningrad Mining Institute (now Saint Petersburg Mining University). Another penetration was made in 2015. In 2013, a new borehole drilling started in order to expand the research.
The scientific significance of such studies is indisputable. According to expert assessments, “Lake Vostok may be the only super clean (almost sterile) giant water system on our planet (a bacterial planet) and thus serve as a unique experimental site for testing methods to search for life outside the Earth on ice planets and moons”. The fact that the lake has been underneath the ice sheet (3500-4000 meters) for a long time makes both the object of research and its substance unique, that is confirmed by the assessments of foreign experts.
The study of Lake Vostok, the largest subglacial body of water in the world, can significantly expand scientists’ understanding of the geological structure and tectonic evolution of the Earth’s crust. This will contribute to better understanding of the processes of natural climate change on our planet. And the lake’s isolation makes it possible to discover previously unknown to science bacteria and microorganisms, including those capable of existing in extreme conditions.
The uniqueness of Lake Vostok is substantiated by the fact that its ecosystem may be the most important source of knowledge about the Earth’s atmosphere over the past 420 thousand years. This should be considered in the context of the rise of the climate agenda in contemporary world politics.
For the Southeast Asian states, this discovery, as well as continued exploration of the lake, is important due to a number of factors. Devastating natural disasters caused by climate change are common to these countries. The consequences are multifaceted and include the rising sea level, increased food insecurity, and many others. This aggravates the political contradictions associated, in particular, with the development of resources of the South China Sea and the Mekong River. Increasing the awareness of the root causes of natural disasters, as well as predicting their occurrence and development, and taking measures to curb their consequences where possible, has been and remains an urgent task for the governments of Southeast Asian states.
These and related issues are studied in Russian scientific and educational institutions. The State Scientific Centre of the Russian Federation the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, the oldest and world-famous specialized center in Russia, conducts a comprehensive study of the polar regions of the Earth. As it is possible to study the World Ocean and make new geographical discoveries only in expeditions, since 1920, the AARI scientists have regularly traveled to the Arctic and the Antarctic for comprehensive and systematic study of the processes that take place at both poles of the Earth and their air and maritime zones. And to help polar explorers endure hardships, the AARI, in cooperation with the “Podpisnye Izdaniya” bookstore, is planning a unique project “Polar Bookcrossing” aimed to collect books for polar station libraries.
Achievement 8. The Proof of Poincare’s Conjecture
In 1904, the French mathematician Henri Poincare formulated the hypothesis which was named after him and included in the list of Millennium Problems. In 2000, the Clay Mathematics Institute offered $1 million for solving one of these problems. In 2003, Poincare’s conjecture was proved.
It was done by the Russian mathematician Grigory Perelman. For this achievement, he was awarded the Fields Prize, which is the highest award in mathematics, as well as the CMI’s Millennium Problem prize. However, Grigory Yakovlevich turned down both awards.
Poincare’s conjecture asserts that every simply connected three-dimensional manifold without an edge is homeomorphic to a three-dimensional sphere. In a more accessible language, any figure that does not represent a torus (a geometric body resembling a doughnut) can take the shape of the sphere by a consecutive deformation. It means that if any curve, for example, a loop, on a three-dimensional surface can be shrunk to a point, then the surface is topologically homeomorphic to a three-dimensional sphere.
Commenting on the achievement of Grigoriy Perelman, William Paul Thurston, Fields Prize winner and pioneer in the field of topology, stated : “Perelman, with tremendous focus and virtuosity, constructed a beautiful proof where I and others failed”
The proof of Poincare’s conjecture has immense importance for understanding the processes of the world. In the scientific literature, it is often referred to as the formula of the Universe. The proof leads to the conclusion that the Universe is a sphere, and the theories of the Big Bang and the Big Compression bear practical relevance.
The proof of the Poincare’s conjecture will intensify the development of nanotechnology, since it is directly associated with the deformation of objects. Perelman’s works have truly surpassed the contemporary science, establishing the foundations for future technologies.
Over the past decade, Russia has consistently increased the scale of investments in projects related to nanotechnology and provides support to leading research centers and enterprises. Nanotechnology can become one of the strategic areas for cooperation between Russia and the countries of Southeast Asia. This is substantiated by ample evidence. In 2010, an agreement on the development of joint nanotechnology projects was signed between the Russian Nanotechnology Corporation (RUSNANO), the Singapore Economic Development Board (EDB) and the international investment company 360ip headquartered in Singapore. In 2014, a $200 million joint investment fund was established.
The results of the proof of the Poincare hypothesis are tested in many Russian universities. The Russian Physics and Mathematics school has been and remains in the leading positions in the world. Grigory Yakovlevich Perelman himself graduated from the Mathematics and Mechanics Faculty of Leningrad State University (currently St. Petersburg State University). Students of this university annually participate in the International Mathematics Competition (IMC), and in 2021 became its winners. The top 10 participants included the team of HSE University (Moscow), which also conducts groundbreaking research in the field of mathematics.
Apart from St. Petersburg State University and HSE University, other Russian universities are recognized and respected by the scientific community. Among them, there are Moscow State University, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” and others.
In addition to the international student competitions, St. Petersburg State University undertakes intense extracurricular activities. The University organizes a Chinese Cinema Club, where students can expand their knowledge of Chinese cinema, as well as of Chinese culture and history. Given China’s close ties with Southeast Asia, this practice may be expanded to the countries of Southeast Asia. In addition, anyone can master dancing, singing and he theatrical art skills at the University, since creative associations that suit every taste take place: theater, dance, vocal studio and others. If you like to play musical instruments, the University can offer you to join its youth chamber orchestra, while fans of dance music can join the University’s rock-n-roll studio.
Achievement 9. A New Method of Space Weather Forecast
The first meteorological observations in the USSR were carried out in the Baikonur Cosmodrome. A series of “cosmos” rockets with modern meteorological equipment at that time, was launched from it. On February 28, 1967, the launch of the first satellite of the “Meteor” series marked the beginning of the creation of the national meteorological space system “Meteor”. Currently, Russia has four operational meteorological satellites in orbit – “Meteor-M” with numbers 1, 2 and 2-2, and “Electro-L No.2”. Roscosmos is planning to launch six meteorological satellites of the Meteor-M and Electro-L series in 2021-2025. At the same time the research in the field of weather prediction in space based on mathematical methods of data mining of geophysical monitoring is being conducted. In particular, in 2020, in the process of studying high-latitude extreme space weather events based on geomagnetic and ionospheric monitoring data, scientists have developed a method for singling out and evaluating the parameters of eddy current structures in the ionosphere.
Data obtained from meteorological satellites is currently the key component of accurate weather forecasting. Meteorological satellites are artificial satellites of the Earth equipped with devices capable of determining the main indicators of the atmosphere. Flying over the Earth’s surface, sensors collect data on such meteorological parameters as surface temperature, wind speed and direction, cloud density, allocation and direction and many others. Further, on the basis of calculations, meteorologists make equations, solving which it is possible to obtain the values of future meteorological indicators.
Over the recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of hydrometeorological satellites. Countries actively support cooperation in the field of climate observation, and also share the information from orbit, which allows covering the large amounts of data necessary for more accurate calculations and observations.
If earlier an access to meteorological data of individual states was limited, now the transition to an open information policy is beginning everywhere. The developments to improve the technology of the satellites are also underway, which increases the correctness of the obtained results. All of the above projects are extremely costly, which opens up an opportunity for close intergovernmental partnership.
Accurate forecasts of natural disasters and storms will help to be more prepared for extreme weather conditions, which can be relevant for residents of coastal regions of the world. Floods complicate the lives of many people around the world, causing colossal damage to infrastructure. In some cases, they can lead to tragic consequences. In this regard, it is extremely essential to predict the weather and act ahead of the curve.
First of all, the study of hydrometeorology, including satellite meteorology, is engaged in the Russian State Hydrometeorological University (RSHU, formerly the Leningrad Hydrometeorological Institute). The Institute at one time became the world’s first higher education institution, which trained hydrometeorological profile specialists. In 1994, the university received worldwide recognition by the World Meteorological Organization WMO (a specialized organization of the United Nations) and became the Regional Training Center of WMO.
In addition to RSHU, the Hydrometeorology program is taught at the Institute of Earth Sciences of the St. Petersburg State University, as well as the Faculty of Geography of the Lomonosov Moscow State University.
It is worth noting that universities emphasize the importance of hydrometeorological education due to the urgent need to solve the problems of global warming and atmospheric pollution. With an education in this specialty, one will be able to become a wide range specialist, since he will be familiar with thermodynamics, statistical physics, hydromechanics, planetary astronomy, geography and biogeochemistry.
RSHU is known not only for its scientific activities, but also for various creative events. The university conducts classes in different types of ethnic folk dances. In addition to dancing, the university has its own choir, as well as a theater studio.
Besides, young people can attend rehearsals of the “School of Rock” instrumental ensemble 3 times a week, while girls can learn sports dancing in a cheerleading club “Tornado”. Moreover, there are many sports clubs at the university, from basketball and Aikido to swimming and table tennis, where everyone can find something he likes.
Achievement 10. The Construction of the RED-100 Neutrino Detector
The study of neutral fundamental particles under the general name neutrino is one of the most important areas of elementary particle physics. Despite the fact that the neutrino itself was experimentally discovered by Frederick Reines and Clyde Cowan in 1956, the nature and properties of this particle still require study. During the second half of the XX century, scientists from the USSR, Japan and the USA discovered new types and properties of neutrinos and antineutrinos, which significantly expanded the horizons of application of this group of particles in solving both fundamental and applied problems of modern physics. An example of the former is the study of the history of the Universe by neutrino astronomy, while in practice this elementary uncharged particle can be used to monitor the functioning of nuclear reactors.
The RED-100 detector, whose task is to record the neutrino flux coming from the reactor, was developed by the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) to improve the safety of the nuclear reactors. The sensor operation is based on the elastic coherent scattering of neutrinos predicted in 1973 on an atomic nucleus. The RED-100 tests were successfully completed in the summer of 2021 at the Kalinin NPP. Thus, scientists have discovered the possibility of creating mobile and compact (device weight 200 kg.) sensors for monitoring nuclear reactors in order to improve their safety.
The control of the isotopic composition, which RED-100 is designed to carry out, is a key task in the construction of nuclear power plants. During the operation of reactors running on uranium-235 appear the isotopes of plutonium-239. These isotopes are used to create nuclear weapons. That is why the IAEA is closely monitoring the construction of nuclear power plants around the world. “Peaceful atoms” can become part of military research. The RED-100 was developed to prevent such a scenario, and the IAEA has already shown its interest in Russian sensor. In case of a deliberate change in the isotopic composition of the reactor, the sensor will transmit information about this to specialists anywhere in the world. Thus, the RED-100 allows to monitor the operation of nuclear power plants and shows how dangerous fuel isotopes are removed.
A qualitative increase in the safety of nuclear power plants (NPP) can stimulate the development of nuclear energy in many regions, including Southeast Asia. The exclusive peaceful use of nuclear energy will be monitored by sensors of the RED-100 type, which may contribute to the postponement of the launch of the first nuclear reactors in the Southeast Asian countries from the mid-2030s to a closer time.
In addition, with the help of the RED-100, it will be much easier to monitor compliance with the requirements of the Southeast Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (SEANWFZ) or the Bangkok Treaty of 1995.
The neutrino radiation sensor was created by scientists from universities such as MEPhI, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR). Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) is one of the largest national research universities, on the basis of which many nuclear engineering projects are being implemented. There are also four laboratories designed to bring together scientists and students to obtain new scientific and practical materials.
The National Research Center Kurchatov Institute has been responsible for nuclear safety and equipment of both the USSR and Russia since 1943. The Kurchatov Institute is a center not only of nuclear potential, but also of information technology and biology.
The Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) is considered a leading university for training specialists in both physics and mathematics, and in the field of natural sciences. According to Forbes, MIPT is a “legend of education and science.” In addition, it entered the top 100 best universities in the world according to Times Higher Education in 2016 and 2018.
The last, but no less important center for nuclear research is JINR, which is founded by 18 JINR member states, which include not only the countries of the post-Soviet space, but also the countries of Europe and Asia. At the governmental level, the Institute has signed Agreements on Cooperation with Germany, Hungary, Italy and the Republic of South Africa.
International cooperation is highly developed at the MEPhI Research Institute. NRU MEPhI cooperates with the Bandung Institute of Technology in Indonesia and a number of universities from 40 countries. Exhibitions, Olympiads, and conferences are held in the field of international events. For example, a conference on intelligent cognitive architectures for artificial intelligence was held in 2020.
In 2020 JINR Educational and Scientific Center has launched a new program for students from all over the world. It was named INTEREST – an abbreviation of the English INTErnational REmote Student Training. The program allows to get acquainted with the activities of the Institute and carry out research projects remotely. For students and postgraduates from the member states, the UNC organizes and conducts an International Summer Student Internship, the participants of which are selected on a competitive basis by the country sending students to practice at JINR. The Institute has a Summer Student Program, to participate in which undergraduate and graduate students must apply and provide a recommendation letter from a faculty member or representative of the national scientific community. After the selection, the Committee sends the participants an official invitation to research activities, which last from 4 to 8 weeks.
Achievement 11. The Construction of the Super Power Laser PEARL
The first laser was invented in the early 1960s. At present, scientific research in the field of lasers are ready for qualitatively new technological changes. In this area, the Russian science is internationally competitive. In 2006, Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Nizhny Novgorod created the most powerful laser complex in Russia PEARL (PEtawatt pARametric Laser) under the scientific supervision of a corresponding member of the RAS E. A. Khazanov. As of today, PEARL is one of the most powerful lasers in the world.
Premised on the already existing laser complex, the construction of a new PEARL-10 laser complex with a capacity of more than 5 PVt is planned. More than that, as a result of the research activity at IPF RAS, the concept of OPCPA (Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification) was formulated for the first time. Based on this concept, a new project of the XCELS exawatt laser complex was developed, which is one of six Russian mega-science class projects to be implemented during the upcoming decade. XCELS power will reach a peak value of 200 PVt.
Such a significant increase in the peak power of lasers opens up new opportunities for science, medicine and industry. In 2017, for example, Russian researchers managed to heat aluminum up to 3 million degrees, which resulted in metal in the state of warm dense substance with the rigid body density. In natural conditions, such a state can occur only in the deep interior of planets. Its laboratory production was highly problematic, while its exploration was nearly impossible. It will also open up the possibility to deepen the study of different sorts of the substance and its characteristics.
The laser can be considered as one of the most significant discoveries of the XX century. Currently, lasers are widely used in many industrial sectors. For example, ultra-precise laser installations have significantly improved the quality of medicine. Laser systems are actively introduced into the defense sector. In particular, lasers are considered to be the most effective instruments to combat drones.
Over the past several years, Southeast Asian countries have been actively developing the metallurgical sectors of their economies with an emphasis on the steel market. This is exemplified mostly by Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia. Laser installations used for heat treatment of metal can significantly improve the quality of the alloy and decrease the breakdown rate. Laser alloying increases the hardness and stability of the surface structure. With laser welding and laser cutting, any manipulations with metals will be highly accurate.
Laser installations are also used in semiconductor manufacturing. Due to the current conditions of the global semiconductor market, laser technologies are among the most promising industrial and commercial niches.
In the Russian Federation, several academic and educational organizations provide research and training opportunities in afore-described fields. Among them, of special note are Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which is engaged in laser development and closely cooperates with Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod. Among the faculties, the “Higher School of General and Applied Physics” and “Fundamental Radiophysics and Physical Electronics” are of particular importance. Similar specialties can be studied at National Research Nuclear University (Moscow) in the programs “Applied Mathematics and Physics”, “Laser Technology”, “Nuclear Physics and Technology”.
The programs implemented by Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod aim to training specialists in the field of fundamental and applied physics for IPF RAS. The research activity of the students of Advanced School of General and Applied Physics is closely connected to the research conducted at Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS. More than 200 graduates of Advanced School of General and Applied Physics in 1992-2018 and the Department of Electrophysics (Gorky Polytechnic Institute) in 1988-1991 work at IAP RAS and IPM RAS, three graduates are corresponding members of the RAS, four are professors of the RAS. The university enrolment can be obtained through targeted training on behalf and for the benefit of the Russian Federal Nuclear Center VNIIEF – the State Corporation Rosatom, which is also interested in relevant research
Achievement 12. A Synthesis of Transuranium Elements of the Mendeleev Periodic Table
In the Soviet Union, the beginning of research in the field of transuranium element synthesis was laid byAcademician G.N. Flyorov. For more than 30 years, he chaired the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions at JINR in Dubna. At present, Academician Yu.Ts. Oganesyan, a student of G. N. Flyorov, chairs the Laboratory. The fact that the 114th and the 118th element of the Mendeleev Periodic Table were named as Flerovium and Oganesson is evidence of world recognition and the enormous contribution of both scientists to science.
On November 28, 2016, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) approved the names for the four elements with the numbers 113, 115, 117 and 118. The contribution of Russian scientists from JINR FLNR, working in cooperation with American researchers, was recognized as a priority for three of the four elements. The discovery of transfermium elements was made possible owing to cyclotrons U-400 and U-400M constructed in Dubna.
The honour of the discovery of element 113 was given to the Japanese institute RIKEN, because of which the element was named Nihonium. Dubna presented its results almost simultaneously with RIKEN in 2004. In their research, Russian scientists used other, more efficient but less studied nuclear reactions.
Element 115, called Moscovium, was synthesized at JINR, which was confirmed by researchers from the Livermore Laboratory. Although the name of the element with the number 117 was given by the American state of Tennessee, its synthesis was carried out in Dubna. The American scientists from the Oak Ridge laboratory were credited with making one of the elements of the nuclear reaction.
After ten years of research, Russian scientists found the element that completed the seventh row of the periodic table. The immense importance of Yu. Ts. Oganesyan’s research was confirmed by assigning element 118 the name of Oganesson. The fact of the scientific discovery was confirmed at the Berkeley cyclotron.
The superheavy elements in the Mendeleev Periodic Table play an important role in medicine, as well as in technical research and in the development of nuclear weapons. They eliminate tumors without damaging tissue and are used to produce radioactive sources. Specifically, i.e. their radiation not only makes it possible to scan various objects, but also acts as a toxic chemical while remaining safe.
As Yuri Oganesyan mentioned, “The search for new superheavy elements allows answering one of the most important questions of science: where does the frontier of our material world lie?” According to the academician, the superheavy elements will open up a new, bright and unusual field of chemistry.
The key factor of interest of Russia’s partners from Southeast Asia is as follows. When Mendeleev created his table, there were only 63 elements in it, now there are 118, with 118 still under study. Chemists like Yuri Oganesyan wonder where the periodic table ends and with it, where Mendeleev’s table ends. The new elements are explored in cooperation with world leading countries such as Japan, Germany, the US and France. This helps the states of Southeast Asia to increase their competitiveness in technologically-advanced sectors that will make the foundation of the economy of the XXI century.
Research in the field of synthesis of superheavy elements is carried out in many Russian universities. Academician Yu. Ts. Oganesyan chairs the Department of Nuclear Physics at Dubna State University, working in cooperation with JINR.
One of the largest universities conducting research in this field is the Institute of Materials for Modern Energy and Nanotechnology at D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology.
The Department of Nuclear Physics and Materials Science functions at Kazan Federal University. The basic departments of elementary particle physics and neutronography at Lomonosov Moscow State University train highly qualified specialists for JINR. The Department of Experimental Methods of Nuclear Physics is part of NRNU MEPhI. The Chair of Fundamental and Applied Microcosm Physics operated at Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT). St. Petersburg State University also trains specialists who aim to devote their careers to nuclear physics.
Those universities have numerous distinctive and competitive advantages. D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, as one of the leading technical universities in Russia, has agreements on cooperation with 42 countries. A distinctive feature of the university is academic mobility of teachers and students. The University hosts the Academician P. D. Sarkisov International Laboratory of Functional Glass-Based Materials with specialists from Germany, Japan, Italy, the US and France as well as the International Academic and Scientific Centre for the Transfer of Pharmaceutical and Biotechnologies. D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology develops cooperation with the Royal Society of Chemistry based in the UK. Nationals of more than 40 countries across all continents study at the university.
MEPhI has professional connections with major corporations as Rosatom and Roscosmos. Many Russian and foreign institutes and companies conducting research in the field of peaceful use of atomic energy are partners of the university. MEPhI ranks third in Russia in terms of internationalization, which signifies its global recognition.
MIPT, another prestigious technical university, occupies one position lower and ranks 4th in the rating of internationalization of Russian universities. Besides, MIPT has many clubs and sections to suit any taste ranging from the club of historical modelling to the student miniature theatre.
Achievement 13. The Discovery of the Scythian Warrior’s Gravesite
The Scythians, a nomadic people, inhabited the territories from the Danube to the Don in the northern Black Sea region in the VIII – IV centuries BC. For a long time, that people were known mostly by myths and descriptions of ancient historians. In 1988, archaeologists from the Institute for the History of Material Culture, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, discovered a unique Scythian burial ground. Inside one of the decks, there was a mummified young body, buried with weapons and ammunition. The genetic research undertaken by the Laboratory of Historical Genetics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), in 2020 revealed that it was a girl, not a boy, as it had been originally assumed.
The Saryg-Bulun burial ground was found during the archaeological research near Tuva republic, on the right bank of the Upper Yenisei. Due to the special environment in which the body was isolated from the external influence, natural partial mummification took place. Many organic materials turned out to be in a good condition, because of which they were used for a DNA analysis.
“When we looked at the DNA fragments, a hypothesis arose: we saw both short and long loci, but there were no loci associated with the Y chromosome. Based on those results, we assumed that we were dealing not with a young man, but with a girl who had been buried in such a peculiar way. And after a set of research, which we conducted in several alternative ways, in great detail and thoroughly, we proved that we these were the remains of a young girl who apparently had been brought up as a young warrior” – Haris Mustafin, head of the laboratory of historical genetics at MIPT, commented on the results.
The Scythian warrior buried 2,600 years ago turned out to be a 13-year-old Amazon. This discovery allows gaining a new insight into the Scythian society and refreshing the image of the Amazons described by Herodotus.
The results of this study confirm the readiness of the Russian Academy of Sciences for participating in the genetic tests on unknown human species. The Saryg-Bulun burial ground can be used as part of sightseeing and tourist activities; it is also an object of historical and cultural heritage. As a result of this discovery, the academic community began to talk about the “eastern Amazons”. Over time, the bodies of female warriors, as evidenced by their weapons, were increasingly found during excavations. A new question arose to scientists: “In what circumstances and for what reasons could those women have died if they were in the prime of life?”.
The archaeological worlds of Southeast Asia are increasingly attracting Russian archaeologists. One of the most rapidly developing directions of Russian science is the island archaeology of the tropical area of the Pacific. With the state financial support, the Russian Academy of Sciences explores the cultural genesis of the Moluccas, Bali, Timor, and the Palau Archipelago. The megalithic complexes of Indonesia are also of growing interest to Russian archaeologists. In 2019, for the first time in the history of Russian archaeology, an expedition was organized to study the megalithic culture of West Java, where more than 200 ancient stone monuments are located. Led by A.V. Tabarev, a team of scientists explored the stepped pyramid of Pangguyangan, the mysterious Gunung Padang complex, and the Tugu Gede menhirs. Based on the undertaken research, Russian archaeologists came to the conclusion about the different cultural origins of the megalithic complexes located in West Java. In addition, Russian researchers confirmed the possibility of linking dolmen culture with a nomad social nature of hunters and fishermen. Their research is in complete congruence with the paradigm shift in the world archaeology, which previously assumed a construction of megalithic structures exclusively by agricultural cultures.
While the island archaeological research of Southeast Asia is a young direction of the Russian science, the continental research has a long and fruitful history. For example, Professor P. I. Boriskovsky made a significant contribution to the development of the Vietnamese archaeological school. The results of joint research of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Academy of Social Sciences of Vietnam accounted for sensational discoveries in the Con Moong Cave in Thanh Hóa province and in the town of An Khê in Gia Lai province. The results of the excavations in the Con Moong Cave demonstrate the evolution of the social transition from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic. The five cultural layers of the cave cover the period from 74,000 to 7,000 years ago and show the life of the ancestors of the people of the Dabut culture. The first Paleolithic finds in the vicinity of the city of An Khê were found by a Russian-Vietnamese expedition in 2014. The archaeological horizons of the artefacts found, namely, bifaces, choppers, unifaces, chisels, picks, scrapers, etc. are determined in 806-782 thousand years, which puts them on a par with the oldest Indonesian bifaces in Southeast Asia. A high quality of the tools found refutes the theory of the American archaeologist H. L. Movius, which (the theory) assumed technological backwardness of the Paleolithic cultures of the East as compared with the West.
The civilizational dimension of Russia’s policy, and, consequently, the civilizational attraction as a factor of sustainable and long-term cooperation, is behind the interest of Southeast Asian states in that discovery. For those countries, the discovery means that Russia is a strong and unique civilization with original history of many peoples, forms and aspects of development. This perfectly responds to the priorities and perceptions of the countries of Southeast Asia.
In the Russian Federation, there are several centers for the study of Asian archeological cultures. One of them is the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Russian and foreign students who specialize at the Department of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Humanities Institute of Novosibirsk State University (NSU) can continue their research there. Another organization to receive archaeological education in Siberia is Irkutsk State University. Moscow’s universities also provide a range of opportunities to study archeology and material culture. The Departments of Archaeology function in Lomonosov Moscow State University and St. Petersburg State University. Within the framework of the program aimed at convergence of science and education, the Institute of Archaeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences cooperates with the State Academic University for the Humanities.
Novosibirsk Akademgorodok, where NSU is located, is a real science city and one of the leading academic centers in Russia. There are more than 45 institutes, whose employees undertake research in all fields of science. NSU has established close ties with the Russian and the international academic Out of 2,500 university teachers, 90% are scholars from research institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences, while out of 6,500 students, 1,450 are foreign students. In addition, NSU student dormitories are surrounded by a coniferous forest, and students live and study in wonderful ecological conditions. NSU is one of the best Russian universities and regularly occupies leading positions in national rankings.
Students of the State Academic University of Humanities aim to continue their activities at the Russian Academy of Sciences. All the faculties and areas of study of the university are affiliated with the relevant institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Thus, the Faculty of History of the State Academic University of Humanities closely cooperates with the Institute of Archeology and Institute of World History of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Just like at NSU, Russia’s leading scientists teach the students. The distinctive features of the State Academic University of Humanities include an individual approach to students and training in small groups. The university cooperates with more than 30 foreign universities and research centers, and is also among the 5 best humanitarian universities in Russia.
Achievement 14. An Upgrade of Quantum Cryptography Methods
Quantum cryptography is the technology for encoding and transmitting data in the quantum states of photons. Quantum cryptography methods are based on the Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, when two quantum quantities cannot be measured simultaneously with the required accuracy. The idea of using quantum photons to protect information was first introduced by Steven Wiesner in the 1970s. 10 years later, Charles Bennett and Gilles Brassard invented the first quantum data transfer protocol – BB84. In 1989 the first experiments on data transmission using quantum objects were held.
Subsequently, the technology began to be used for various purposes. Thus, the system of quantum cryptography methods was first used in 2007 at the parliamentary elections in the Swiss canton of Geneva to protect data on voting results.
Russia has achieved considerable success in the development of quantum cryptography methods. In 2016, the National University of Science and Technology MISIS and the Russian Quantum Center created a joint scientific and educational project NUST MISIS Quantum Center. As a result of the project, in 2021 a group of scientists from the Russian Quantum Center and the QRate, research and manufacturing company, updated the world record in the efficiency of classical post-processing algorithms in quantum cryptography systems, as they managed to reduce the share of the key spent on authentication of classical data by up to 1% and proposed an error correction algorithm based on polar codes.
In recent times, the technology is developing at an incredible speed. Under these conditions, the problem of protecting data from hacking and ensuring the security of their transfer is becoming more and more acute. Especially when it comes to creating quantum computers that will be able to decipher the most complex mathematical algorithms with which data is encrypted. To solve this problem, it is necessary to create encryption methods based on the same physics. Now cryptography uses so-called “public keys” to encrypt (and decrypt) messages, which, however, cannot ensure complete safety, since there is no way to transfer this key to another party without the risk of interception. New methods of quantum cryptography offer a solution to this problem through the transfer of keys using elementary particles that cannot be intercepted without damaging the information. In addition, a hacking attempt can be easily detected. This ensures complete security of the transmitted information.
Ensuring the security of data transmission is of interest to all countries, but only a few of them have the opportunity to put it into practice. The technology is in demand in the military and financial sectors and, as a result, it is receiving significant funding. It makes organization of communication both at the interstate level and within the state apparatus of a country safe, as it was done, for example, in China. In addition, quantum crypto companies are striving to enter the market. With further development and research, in the future, quantum cryptography methods can become a part of everyone’s daily life, ensuring the safety of personal data. This is very important for Southeast Asian countries as they seek to strengthen their digital sovereignty and increase the level of protection of so-called critical infrastructure.
This branch of science is studied and taught in a number of research institutes and universities of the Russian Federation. The NUST MISIS Quantum Center project brought together researchers from the leading universities in Russia. They include the V.A. Steklov of the Russian Academy of Sciences (MIAN), Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation (RANEPA), Tomsk State University (TSU), Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics (MTUCI) and Higher School of Economics. In addition, the methods of quantum cryptography are actively studied and applied by the Moscow State University (MSU). Case in point is that in August 2021 InfoTeKS, together with the Center for Quantum Technologies of the Faculty of Physics of the Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov has completed the first stage of the creation of the University Quantum Network (UKS).
The National Research Technological University “MISIS”, recognized by “Rosatom” as the Russian center that defines the future of quantum technologies, is of interest from the point of view of additional factors of interest of potential students. Now there are about 37 research laboratories and 3 engineering centers at the university, within the walls of which scientists come to new discoveries. MISIS cooperates with major Russian and foreign companies such as ROSATOM, Norilsk Nickel and Severstal, which greatly simplifies both the introduction of R&D into production and the employment of students.
Moreover, extracurricular programs are widely represented at the university. In addition to traditional theater, dance and music styles, students can attend classes in the sports programming section, as well as show their wits in the Science Slam MISIS scientific stand. The stand-up artist can humorously present the results of his scientific works to the audience or talk about research ideas that excite him. The University has an International Friendship Club, whose members provide support to foreign students in their adaptation to life in Russia and learning in new conditions for them. NUST MISIS strives to create the most pleasant and convenient learning environment for representatives of all nationalities and is ready to provide any assistance in their scientific endeavors.
Achievement 15. The Launch of the Spectrum X-Gamma Space Mission
On July 13, 2019, the Orbital Astrophysical Observatory Spektr-RG, launched by a Proton-M vehicle, started from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. On October 21, spacecraft reached the surroundings of L2 Lagrange point, which is about 1 500 000 km from the Earth, and started its scientific mission.
Due to an advanced optical hardware and communication system, Spektr-RG is able to accomplish the most ambitious tasks of modern astrophysics. A combination of two telescopes, operating in different X-rays ranges, is a distinguishing feature of the observatory. The Russian telescope ART-XC is capable of capturing hard X-rays up to 30 keV energy range, while other telescopes of hard band cease to function at much lower indicators.
Constructed by the European Space Agency (ESA) XMM-Newton observatory is ineffective at 15 keV, while the American observatory Chandra loses its effectiveness at 10 keV. Moreover, ART-XC telescope has a high sensitivity and big entrance aperture (the telescope’s ability to gather light beams).
The telescope eROSITA, produced by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), is the second instrument of Spektr-RG. This telescope operates in the soft X-rays band (0,2-10 keV), and has a 1-degree vision angle, which allows eROSITA to multiply the speed of performing its tasks exponentially.
The synergy of ART-XC and eROSITA provides the Russian-German observatory an opportunity to operate within 0,2-30 keV band, making Spektr-RG the first observatory that can function in soft and hard bands of X-rays.
Spektr-RG encounters several tasks. If fulfilled, they will significantly expand our view of the Universe. Producing a high-quality map of the Universe in X-ray is a primary mission of Spektr-RG.
This research is necessary not only for searching for new space objects, but also for exploring the evolution of galaxies. Rashid Syunaev, academician and the principal investigator of the project, claims that the scientific community will use Spektr-RG-made maps for 15-20 years. Spektr-RG is expected to create maps that will be 30 times superior to those made up 20 years ago by the German ROSAT telescope.
A second crucial task of Spektr-RG is exploring the history of the Universe. The source of X-ray is a matter under extreme conditions. Such conditions are common for quasars, active galactic nucleuses (AGS) and supermassive black holes (SBH). The distances between these objects are comparable to the size of the Universe, which allows exploring it in a long-term retrospective.
Another aim of the observatory is to study galaxies. These systems predominantly consist of dark matter, one of the least explored forms of substance, but are powerful sources of X-ray due to hot intergalactic plasma.
An analysis of the afore-mentioned issues is of paramount significance for contemporary space research. Nevertheless, apart from resolving fundamental challenges of astrophysics and cosmologists, Spektr-RG is aimed at fulfilling practice-oriented tactical tasks. The eROSITA’s soft band allows the station to examine the solar wind and its influence on planetary atmospheres. In order to coordinate space-travelling, Russia is planning to develop an “Astro-GLONASS” navigation system based on a map of the Universe, made by Spektr-RG.
Russia is open to dialogue with other countries, including those located in Southeast Asia. The more so since their interest is evident. Among potential partners, Indonesian telecommunication companies PT. Indosat and PT. Telkom can be distinguished. Experts appreciate characteristics and reliability of Russian equipment. Russian space satellites may become the foundation for the VSAT system, which is necessary for developing mobile telecommunications throughout the territory of Indonesia. Jakarta cooperates with Moscow on constructing the GLONASS system on the basis of the satellite’s laser optics.
Malaysia is another Russia’s important partner in this field. Kuala Lumpur develops its own aerospace programs in cooperation with Rostec corporation and Moscow Aviation Institute. Malaysia is planning to import Russia’s air-navigation equipment, management systems and cyber-security programs.
The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is another principal partner for the Russian Federation. Cooperation in the aerospace field plays a prominent role in Russia-Vietnam Comprehensive Strategic Partnership. In 2017, President V.V. Putin and President Trần Đại Quang signed a program of bilateral cooperation in the aerospace area for 2017-2022. A development and exploitation of the GLONASS system, a launch of joint spacecraft and a remote sensing of the Earth by satellites are major directions of cooperation between Moscow and Hanoi.
The Russian Federation trains highly qualified engineers, astrophysicists and aero constructors. The institutes that develop Spektr-RG, namely, Lavochkin Research and Production Association, “Roscosmos”, the Russian Space Research Institute and the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of experimental Physics, collaborate with Russia’s leading universities. As a part of the partnership, Lavochkin Research and Production Association and the aerospace faculty of Moscow Aviation University established a basic chair of design of automatic space complexes.
Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences promotes cooperation with universities through its basic chairs of space physics at Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, physics of the space at the Higher School of Economics and educational program of methods and technologies of remote sensing of the Earth at Moscow State University. Corporation “Roscosmos” cooperates with many Russian universities. These include National Research University “Moscow Power Engineering Institute”, MIREA-Russian Technological University, National Research Nuclear University MEPhi, RUDN University, Bauman MSTU, Moscow Aviation Institute etc. All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics also cooperates with educational centers and programs.
MIPT has always been considered a special university. Its intensive education may create an impression that MIPT students lack extra-curriculum activity. This is not true, as MIPT students do a lot of sport: football, volleyball, basketball, tennis, swimming and figure skating. Games and dances are also popular among MIPT students. Many student clubs are active.
Students of Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI) do a lot of sport too. MAI’s team scores high in Moscow Student Football League and regularly takes top places. This is hardly surprising, as there are eight sport complexes on the territory of MAI!
Achieving an ambitious long-term goal, which is directly relevant to an increase in scale in quality of cooperation between Russia and its Asia-Pacific partners – means performing three interrelated, namely, substantial, institutional-coordinating and normative, tasks. As it seemed quite recently, Russia possessed none of the necessary assets. Russia’s enterprises do not participate in global and regional supply-production chains. Russia is not presented in many of the regional institutions of cooperation that elaborate on its rules and standards (at those venues where Russia is, for instance, in APEC, Moscow has not achieved impressive results). At the grass-root level, Russia’s turn to conservative values runs counter to both market liberalism, on which “high quality and comprehensive cooperation” between APEC and CPTPP members is premised, and the Confucian values as the foundation for China’s mega-strategy the Belt and Road Initiative, mostly due to their cultural country-specific dimension. In reality, however, the global international context, part of which relates to the Asia-Pacific region, and in which Russia is currently implementing its policy, requires a radically different set of instruments to perform the three tasks outlined above.
To specify those conditions, the following points are relevant. The world has become more interconnected from a physical, but not from an ethic and ideological perspective: the normative component of their modernization is too mosaic to be even partially unified. The elites have to deal with agentless threats rather than with well-defined adversaries, because of which the established instruments for resolving crises are irrelevant. The international competition becomes spontaneous and focuses on insignificant problems, while its participants do not aim to cooperate once situational profit is yielded. As a result, international cooperation is losing long-term vision as one of its major pull factors.
Nevertheless, this vicious circle can be broken by the countries with characteristics of established civilizations. They can make their policy free from situational circumstances, premise cooperation on equality (by their definition, civilizations do not seek minor benefits) appealing to traditional values. Undoubtedly, Russia is one of global civilizations.
In light of these factors, the substantial, institutional-coordinating and normative components of Russia’s policy in the Asia-Pacific region takes on a qualitatively new dimension. Its essence accounts for a strengthening demand on Russia’s assets from its Asia-Pacific partners. The Russian achievements presented above substantiate this argument. From a substantial perspective, even partial implementation in Asia-Pacific countries and economies will result in an exponential rise of their competitiveness, which includes a decrease in seriousness of exponential threats like a violation of digital sovereignty. Concerning the institutional-coordinating side of the problem, Russia’s assets allow cooperating along the university and the academic tracks with a positive multiplier effect and eventual self-maintaining and self-reproducing ties. Finally, the normative dimension of Russia’s policy stems from its civilizational component. As Russia is a great civilization, it naturally emphasizes long-term factors of cooperation, including its conservative values. The fact that these values appeal to morally justified connotations, which include equality and mutual respect as foundations for dialogue with partners, produces a positive reaction in the Asia-Pacific region.
The factors mentioned above do not mean that those partners are keen to intensify cooperation with the Russian Federation in the “here-and-now” format – the more so, to the detriment of their long-term economic ties and commercial practices. As the regional milieu becomes increasingly competitive, the regional actors are noticeably aim to yield short-term, ideally – quick, profit from cooperation of all sorts. Regarding the Asia-Pacific region, China and India, just as well as Russia, can be rightfully regarded as great civilizations. Their possibilities – it relates mostly to China – are substantiated by political, technological and infrastructural instruments. If so, Russia will have to make every effort in order to translate its potential of a great civilization into practical reality.
Because of this, the contribution to achieving Russia’s mega-aim in the Asia-Pacific region, made by the Miklouho-Maclay Foundation for the Preservation of Ethnocultural Heritage, since recently in cooperation with the All-Russian Association of the South Pacific Researchers, is exceptionally valuable. The activity of the Foundation exemplifies how Russia can successfully resolve the afore-outlined substantial, institutional-coordinating and normative tasks in their mutual synergy. Regarding the substantial side of things, the Foundation has carried out many projects and initiatives with considerable influence on cooperation between Russia and its Asia-Pacific neighbors. Concerning the institutional-coordinating dimension, the Foundation has established strong professional ties with similar organizations in the countries of Southeast Asia and the South Pacific. With respect to the normative realm, the Foundation focuses its activity largely on the legacy of N.N. Miklouho-Maclay, the humanistic component of which is indisputable, and whose ideas are highly demanded at present.
Stating that the interim results of the project are positive, to which its young participants made their contribution, it deserves emphasizing that this practice must be further promoted, with the participation of students and professors from Russian and foreign universities. Miklouho-Maclay Foundation for the Preservation of Ethnocultural Heritage and the All-Russian Association of the South Pacific Researchers, as venues that can effectively promote a partnership between government agencies, big companies and experts in the name and on behalf of the Russian Federation, can coordinate these projects.
ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS
Artemenko Ekaterina, fourth-year student, Bachelor’s Programme “World Economy”, Faculty of World Economy and International Affairs, HSE University.
Ashkhotov Vladimir, second-year student, Bachelor’s Programme “Foreign Regional Studies and Political Economic Analysis”, Liberal Arts College, Institute for Social Sciences, RANEPA University.
Bairamova Giulkhar, third-year student, Bachelor’s Programme “International Relations”, Faculty of World Economy and International Affairs, HSE University.
Gashimova Luiza, fourth-year student, Bachelor’s Programme “International Relations”, Faculty of World Economy and International Affairs, HSE University.
Gilfanova Adelia, fourth-year student, Bachelor’s Programme “International Relations”, Faculty of World Economy and International Affairs, HSE University.
Eremenko Daria, third-year student, Bachelor’s Programme “International Relations”, Faculty of World Economy and International Affairs, HSE University.
Zaripova Chulpan, third-year student, Bachelor’s Programme “International Relations”, Faculty of World Economy and International Affairs, HSE University.
Kiyashkina Ekaterina, fourth-year student, Bachelor’s Programme “International Relations”, Faculty of World Economy and International Affairs, HSE University.
Rudakova Tatiana, second-year student, Bachelor’s Programme “Media Journalism”, Liberal Arts College, Institute for Social Sciences, RANEPA University.